Modern humans were never able to penetrate “the gates of Europe”

Evidence of earliest modern humans outside Africa found in China

Teeth found in southern Chinese cave twice as old as earliest evidence of modern humans in Europe

Thomson Reuters Posted: Oct 14, 2015 3:16 PM ET Last Updated: Oct 14, 2015 7:02 PM ET

Here are some of the 47 human teeth found in the Fuyan Cave, Daoxian, that represent the earliest evidence of modern humans outside Africa.

Here are some of the 47 human teeth found in the Fuyan Cave, Daoxian, that represent the earliest evidence of modern humans outside Africa. (S. Xing and X-J. Wu)

A trove of 47 fossil human teeth from a cave in southern China is rewriting the history of the early migration of our species out of Africa, indicating Homo sapiens trekked into Asia far earlier than previously known and much earlier than into Europe.

Scientists on Wednesday announced the discovery of teeth between 80,000 and 120,000 years old that they say provide the earliest evidence of fully modern humans outside Africa.

The teeth from the Fuyan Cave site in Hunan Province’s Daoxian County place our species in southern China 30,000 to 70,000 years earlier than in the eastern Mediterranean or Europe.

“Until now, the majority of the scientific community thought that Homo sapiens was not present in Asia before 50,000 years ago,” said paleoanthropologist Wu Liu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology.

Our species first appeared in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, then spread to other parts of the world, but the timing and location of these migrations has been unclear.

University College London paleoanthropologist Maria Martinon-Torres said our species made it to southern China tens of thousands of years before colonizing Europe perhaps because of the entrenched presence of our hardy cousins, the Neanderthals, in Europe and the harsh, cold European climate.

“This finding suggests that Homo sapiens is present in Asia much earlier than the classic, recent ‘Out of Africa’ hypothesis was suggesting: 50,000 years ago,” Martinon-Torres said.

Liu said the teeth are about twice as old as the earliest evidence for modern humans in Europe.

“We hope our Daoxian human fossil discovery will make people understand that East Asia is one of the key areas for the study of the origin and evolution of modern humans,” Liu said.

Neanderthals may have been barrier in Europe

Martinon-Torres said some migrations out of Africa have been labeled “failed dispersals.” Fossils from Israeli caves indicate modern humans about 90,000 years ago reached “the gates of Europe,” Martinon-Torres said, but “never managed to enter.”

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